تحميل كتاب القواعد فى اللغة الالمانية German An Essential Grammar

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كتاب القواعد فى اللغة الالمانية German An Essential Grammar

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كتاب القواعد
German An Essential Grammar

يحتوى الوحدات التالية



Chapter 1 Pronunciation 1
1.1 Vowels 1
1.2 Diphthongs 3
1.3 Consonants 3
1.4 Stress 7
1.5 Regional variants 8
Chapter 2 Spelling 9
2.1 Indicating vowel length 9
2.2 Use of the Umlaut 9
2.3 Use of capital letters 10
2.4 Use of the hyphen 10
2.5 The new spelling 11
2.6 The alphabet 12
Chapter 3 Punctuation 13
3.1 Commas 13
3.2 Colons with direct speech 15
3.3 Inverted commas/quotation marks 15
3.4 Exclamation marks 16
Chapter 4 Case 17
4.1 Case endings on nouns 18
4.2 Other uses of the nominative case 20
4.3 Other uses of the accusative case 20
4.4 The genitive case 21
4.5 Other uses of the dative case 22
4.6 Nouns in apposition 23
4.7 Order of cases in paradigms 24
Chapter 5 Articles and other determiners 25
5.1 The defi nite article 25
5.2 Other determiners infl ected like der/die/das 29
5.3 The indefi nite article 30
5.4 Other determiners infl ected like ein 32
5.5 Indefi nite pronouns used as determiners 32
Chapter 6 Nouns 33
6.1 Gender of nouns 33
6.2 Pluralization of nouns 37
6.3 Diminutization of nouns 41
6.4 Names of towns 42
6.5 Names of countries 44
6.6 Feminizing agents 44
6.7 Adjectival nouns 45
6.8 Compound nouns 47
6.9 Nouns in apposition (see 4.6) 48
Chapter 7 Pronouns 49
7.1 Personal pronouns 49
7.2 Possessives 58
7.3 Refl exive pronouns 60
7.4 Demonstrative pronouns 63
7.5 Interrogative pronouns 63
7.6 Relative pronouns 64
7.7 Indefi nite pronouns 69
Chapter 8 Adjectives 75
8.1 Rules for infl ection 76
8.1.1 The der/die/das (weak) endings 76
8.1.2 The ein/eine/ein (mixed) endings 76
8.1.3 The unpreceded adjectival (strong) endings 77
8.1.4 Adjectival endings after indefi nite pronouns 78
8.1.5 Indeclinable adjectives 78
8.2 Comparative of adjectives and adverbs 79
8.3 Superlative of adjectives and adverbs 81
8.4 Predicate adjectives followed by a prepositional object 83
Chapter 9 Adverbs 86
9.1 Adverbs that are also adjectives 86
9.2 Comparative and superlative of adverbs 87
9.3 Intensifying adverbs 87
9.4 Adverbs of time 88
9.5 Adverbs of place and direction 100
9.6 Adverbs of manner and degree 102
9.7 Interrogative adverbs 102
Chapter 10 Verbs 105
10.1 Formation of tenses 106
10.1.1 The present tense 106
10.1.2 The future tense 111
10.1.3 The imperative 113
10.1.4 The imperfect tense 115
10.1.5 The perfect tense 120
10.1.6 The pluperfect tense 127
10.1.7 The future perfect tense 128
10.1.8 The conditional tense 128
10.1.9 The conditional perfect tense 129
10.2 Modal auxiliary verbs 131
10.2.1 Double infi nitive constructions 135
10.2.2 Modals used with perfective infi nitives 138
10.3 The subjunctive 138
10.3.1 The subjunctive I 139
10.3.2 The subjunctive II 141
10.4 The passive 145
10.5 The infi nitive 151
10.5.1 Characteristics of the infi nitive 151
10.5.2 Rules for the use of zu with infi nitives 152
10.5.3 Use of um . . . zu before infi nitives 153
10.5.4 Double infi nitive constructions (see 10.2.1) 154
10.5.5 The infi nitive used as a noun 154
10.6 Participles 154
10.6.1 Present participles 154
10.6.2 Past participles 155
10.6.3 Use of present and past participles in extended
adjectival phrases (see 7.6.4) 155
10.7 Progressive tenses 156
10.8 Refl exive verbs 157
Contents
10.9 Verbal prefi xes 157
10.9.1 Verbs with separable prefi xes (separable verbs) 157
10.9.2 Verbs with inseparable prefi xes (inseparable
verbs) 159
10.9.3 Verbs with variable prefi xes (separable or
inseparable verbs) 160
10.10 Verbs followed by prepositional objects 161
10.10.1 Use of prepositional adverbs before
subordinate clauses 169
10.11 Transitive and intransitive verbs 170
10.11.1 Use of sein and lassen with intransitive verbs 171
10.11.2 Intransitive verbs and the passive 172
10.12 List of irregular verbs 172
10.12.1 Alphabetical list of irregular verbs 178
Chapter 11 Conjunctions 183
11.1 Coordinating conjunctions 184
11.2 Subordinating conjunctions 185
11.3 Conjunctions introducing infi nitive clauses 192
11.4 Correlative conjunctions 193
Chapter 12 Prepositions 195
12.1 Prepositions that take the accusative case 196
12.2 Prepositions that take the dative case 199
12.3 Prepositions that take both the accusative and the
dative case 207
12.4 Prepositions that take the genitive case 210
12.5 Contraction of prepositions with the defi nite article 213
12.6 How to translate ‘to’ into German 214
Chapter 13 Numerals 217
13.1 Cardinal numerals 217
13.2 Ordinal numerals 219
13.3 Fractions 221
13.4 Arithmetic/calculation 222
13.5 Age 222
13.6 Money 223
13.7 Telling the time 223
13.8 Dates 225
13.9 Weights 226
13.10 Measurement 227
13.11 School marks/grades 228
Chapter 14 Negation 230
14.1 Position of nicht (not) and nie(mals) (never) 230
14.2 Notes on negatives 232
Chapter 15 Common German abbreviations 237
Appendix 1: List of countries, inhabitants and
adjectives/languages 238
Index


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